Electronic Stability Controls
Electronic Stability Programme (ESP) or Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is a further development of ABS, with additional sensors which detect any difference between the driver’s control input and the vehicle’s response. If it detects a difference, the system immediately intervenes, applying the brakes to individual wheels as necessary to correct the vehicle’s path. This helps to reduce over-steer and under-steer and thus improves vehicle stability, especially during severe cornering and on low-friction road surfaces.
Some systems include a connection to the engine management system, so that they can also reduce engine torque when required.